The Isle of Sheppey is an island off the northern coast of Kent, in the Thames Estuary, some 46 miles (74 km) to the east of London.
It has an area of 36 square miles (93 km2). The island forms part of the local government district of Swale.
Sheppey is derived from the ancient Saxon "Sceapige", meaning isle of sheep and even today the extensive marshes which make up a considerable proportion of the island provide grazing for large flocks of sheep.
The island, like much of north Kent, comprises of London Clay and is a plentiful source of fossils.
The land mass referred to as Sheppey comprises three main islands: Sheppey, the Isle of Harty and the Isle of Elmley (it was once known as the Isles of Sheppey before the channels separating them silted up), but the marshy nature of the land to the south of the island means that it is so crossed by channels and drains as to consist of a multitude of islands.
The ground is mainly low-lying, but at the Mount near Minster, rises to 250 feet (76 metres) above sea level.
Shurland Hall, near Eastchurch, is named after its first owners, the De Shurland family.
In 1188 Adam de Shurland possessed a mill with more than 1,000 acres (4 km²) of mixed land, mostly marsh with a small meadow: he also let a number of cottages thereabouts.
A curious tale surrounds a 14th-century member of the family, Sir Robert de Shurland: according to legend, Sir Robert killed a monk and resolved to ask the king for a pardon. In 1327 he rode to where the King's ship was anchored, off the Isle of Sheppey, and gained forgiveness. Returning, he met a witch who said that de Shurland's horse, Grey Dolphin, which had borne him so bravely to the ship, would be the death of him. Sir Robert immediately killed the horse and cut off its head. A year later Sir Robert was walking along the shore when a shard of the horse's bone pierced his foot. Blood poisoning set in and Sir Robert died.....
Henry VIII visited the hall; about this time it became the family home of William Cheney (1453–87), whose son Thomas was a Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. It is thought that Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn spent their honeymoon at Shurland Hall.
During the First World War troops were billeted at the Great Hall, and it suffered considerable damage as a result. There has been no record of anyone living in the hall since.
It is a Grade II listed building and awaits reconstruction by English Heritage. Planning applications have been made to use part of the site for housing. A grant of £300,000 was made by English Heritage in 2006 to restore the hall's facade.
Sheppey enjoys the dubious distinction of being one of few parts of what is now the United Kingdom, to be lost to a foreign power since William the Conqueror's invasion in 1066.
This was in June 1667, when a Dutch fleet sailing up the Thames Estuary captured the fort at Sheerness. The fort at the time was incomplete and the garrison underfed and unpaid, so resistance to the heavily armed Dutch Navy was hardly enthusiastic.
Samuel Pepys, then secretary of the Navy Board, described Sheerness as lost "after two or three hours' dispute". The Dutch quickly over-ran and occupied the whole island for several days before withdrawing. Prior to leaving, the Dutch took supplies, ammunition and guns, then burned everything that was combustible.
Sheerness is a commercial port and main town of the Isle of Sheppey and owes much to its origins, as a Royal Naval dockyard town.
Samuel Pepys established the Royal Navy Dockyard in the 17th century. Henry VIII, requiring the River Medway as an anchorage for his navy, ordered that the mouth of the river should be protected by a small fort. Garrison Fort was built in 1545.
Sheerness was the focus of an attack by the Dutch Navy in June 1667, when 72 hostile ships compelled the little "sandspit fort" there to surrender and landed a force which for a short while occupied the town. Samuel Pepys at Gravesend remarked in his diary "we do plainly at this time hear the guns play" and in fear, departed to Brampton in Huntingdonshire.
The dockyard served the Royal Navy until 1960 and has since developed into one of the largest and fastest expanding ports in the UK.
The Port of Sheerness contains at least one Grade II listed building, the Old Boat House. Built in 1866, it is the first multi-storey iron framed industrial building recorded in the UK. Decorated with ornate ironwork, it features operating rails extending the length of the building, for the movement of stores, much like a modern crane.
The dockyard and port at Sheerness today are a significant feature of the Isle of Sheppey's economy, which includes the extensive export/import of motor vehicles, and a large steel works, with extensive railway fixtures. The island is, however, suffering from an economic recession and these industries are not as extensive as they once were.
The area immediately outside the dockyard was occupied by dockyard workers, who built wooden houses and decorated them with Admiralty blue paint illegally acquired from the dockyard. This area was, and still is, known as Blue Town, though it is now mostly occupied by the Sheerness Steel complex.
Beyond Blue Town, an outlying residential area overlooking the sea was chiefly designed for various government officials. This area became known as Mile Town because it is one mile (1.6 km) from Sheerness.
About 200 shipwrecks are recorded around the coast of Sheppey, the most famous being the SS Richard Montgomery, a liberty ship loaded with bombs and explosives that grounded on sandbanks during the Second World War.
As of 2004 plans were discussed with a view to removing the threat from the Montgomery. These include encasing the ship in concrete or removing the bombs; no firm decision has been made.
Research commissioned by the Government in 2005–06 has suggested that the threat has passed and that constant surveillance should ensure the safety of the immediate community.
At times, you can still see the Montgomery today from Sheppey's shoreline.
The island has a long history of aviation development in England. It was home to Lord Brabazon's Royal Aero Club, which formed in Leysdown in the early 1900s to popularise ballooning.
The club took to the aeroplane with relish, and in July 1909 the Short Brothers established Shellbeach Aerodrome on nearby marshland to accommodate six Wright Flyers, moving a few kilometres the next year to Eastchurch where a new more appropriate aerodrome had been built for the club.
The Eastchurch airfield played a significant role in the history of British aviation from 1909 when Frank McClean acquired Stonepits Farm, on the marshes across from Leysdown, converting the land into an airfield for members of the Aero Club of Great Britain.
The Short brothers, Horace, Eustace and Oswald, built aircraft at Battersea to be tested at the site; later Moore-Brabazon, Professor Huntington, Charles S. Rolls and Cecil Grace all visited and used the flying club's services.
Wilbur Wright and his brother Orville came to the Isle of Sheppey to visit the new flying grounds of the Aero Club.
On May 2 1909, John Brabazon made the first flight in Britain - flying a total of 500 yards at a height of 35 feet above Leysdown.
Later that year, Moore-Brabazon made the first live cargo flight by fixed-wing aircraft, by tying a waste-paper basket to a wing strut of his Shorts-built Wright aircraft. Then using it as a "cargo hold", he airlifted one small pig.
The Eastchurch airfield was also the site, in July 1911, of the competition for the Gordon Bennett Cupfor powered air racing, attended by flyers from all over the world, and won that year by the American pilot C. T. Weymann.
A stained glass window in the south side of All Saints' Church, Eastchurch (built in 1432), was dedicated to Rolls and Grace, who were killed in July and December 1910 respectively.
In July 2009, Eastchurch celebrated 100 years of aviation history associated with the island.
SkySheppey brought together a number of associations and joined with many visitors to recognise the importance of British aviation history that started at Eastchurch.
During the reign of Edward I, according to the historian Charles Igglesden, a bridge connected Sheppey to the mainland at Elmley. It was called the Tremsethg Bridge, but was lost in a tidal wave and never replaced.
In much more modern times, the Kingsferry Bridge (replacing the ferry) has been built.
There have been four bridges, each having to be built to allow passage along the navigable waterway to the Swale:
19 July 1860: The London, Chatham and Dover Railway built the first bridge to an Admiralty design. It had a central span raised between two towers. Trains and road traffic were able to use it, as with the next two bridges.
6 November 1906: The South Eastern & Chatham Railway replaced the first bridge with one having a "rolling lift" design. It was originally worked by hand, but later by electricity.
October 1959: Kingsferry Bridge, a lifting bridge was installed, able to lift both the road and the railway line to allow ships to pass beneath.
May 2006: The Sheppey Crossing was completed and opened on 3 July. This four-lane road bridge rises to a height of 115 feet (35m) above the Swale, and carries the A249 trunk road. Pedestrian, animal and bicycle traffic, as well as the railway, are still obliged to use the lifting bridge, which still provides the most direct link between the island and the Iwade/Lower Halstow area.
Edward Jacob, (1710–1788), purchased the little Manor of Nutts, Isle of Sheppey, in 1752. There, he pursued his hobby as a naturalist.
He discovered much of interest to the antiquarian, naturalist, geologist and zoologist, although there was little prior knowledge. In 1777, Jacob published a book about his various fossil finds, including what he called "the remains of an elephant".
The isle is noted as the northern-most place to have an established scorpion population, which has been resident since the 1860s, believed to have been imported on a ship. They have been found to be highly adaptable and hence have survived the relative cold by conserving energy and only acting for nutrition and reproduction...
(Happily Als Van can report to never having actually seen one on the island!)
In 2008 palaeontologists published details of the fossil skull, found on the island, of a large flying bird from the Eocene period called Dasornisin the deposits of the London Clay.
The largest town on the island is Sheerness. Other villages include Minster, which has a pebble beach, and Leysdown-on-Sea, which has a coarse sandy beach.
The whole north coast is now dotted with caravan parks and holiday homes.
(There is also a naturist beach beyond Leysdown, towards Shellness, if you're feeling brave!)
On 21 September 2008, Mayor of London at the time, Boris Johnson, said that an airport off the coast of the Isle of Sheppey would be a viable alternative to creating a new third runway at Heathrow.
Thankfully - this idea seems to have been forgotten about!